sábado, 22 de março de 2014

RED ALERT over lithium battery FIRE RISK in passenger cabin

The increasing use of mobile devices such as iPhones and iPads on board planes, together with passengers’ demands to  recharge their lithium batteries while flying, will heighten the risks of further fires.
“Throwing water on a lithium battery fire can, however, revive the flames and make it more difficult to extinguish because  of the reduction of lithium in water, which leads to the release of hydrogen, which is highly inflammable.”

Aviation Accidents and Incidents Involving the Transport of Lithium Batteries

The two aircraft accidents listed below include the transport of lithium batteries as cargo and contributed to their onboard fires:

Incident Summary
Onboard Fire and landing, Philadelphia International Airport (PHL)
February 7, 2006
A Mc-Donnell Douglas DC-8 landed at Philadelphia International Airport after the crew received a cargo smoke indication in the cockpit during the landing approach. The flight crew evacuated the airplane after landing and sustained minor injuries, and the airplane and most of the cargo were destroyed by fire after landing. Although the source of the fire was never conclusively determined, extensive fire damage was found in cargo compartments known to have held equipment containing lithium batteries.The National Transportation Safety Board subsequently issued six safety recommendations addressing the transportation of lithium batteries by air.
B-747 Onboard Fire, Dubai, UAE
September 3, 2010
Boeing 747-400F departed Dubai International Airport on a scheduled cargo flight to Cologne, Germany. Although the aircraft was carrying over 80,000 lithium batteries, none of the shipments were included on the pilot notification form. Twenty two minutes into the flight, the flight crew advised ATC that the fire warning systems for the cargo compartments indicated an onboard main-deck fire. The crew declared an emergency and requested an immediate return to Dubai, but ultimately crashed several miles from the airport, with the loss of both pilots, the aircraft, and its cargo. While the investigation is ongoing and no source of fire has been determined, the presence of large quantities of lithium batteries likely contributed greatly to the severity of the fire and the loss of the aircraft

The 36 incidents listed below are excerpted from the FAA report, “Batteries & Battery-Powered Devices, Aviation Incidents Involving Smoke, Fire, Extreme Heat or Explosion” as of October 9, 2012

(if applicable)
07-JUNE-2012 DOT 5800.1 FormNo I2012060342
Lithium-ion batteries
Report from United Parcel Service indicated that at its Louisville, KY facility, a package containing 18 approximately 1 ounce lithium ion batteries from 6 various manufacturers melted through their plastic wrap causing the outer package to start burning.
22-April2012 DOT 5800.1 FormNo I201240360
Lithium-ion battery
Air Express International indicated that a packaged opened during the sort at its Erlanger, KY facility.  The package contained 17 lithium ion batteries.  As one of the batteries was being returned to the package, it shorted out and caught fire.  One employee was injured and treated at the facility.
24-MAR-2012 DOT 5800.1 FormNo E2012040410
Lithium-ion batteries
Battery powered device
Report from Atlas Air indicated that a package caught fire at its Incheon, Korea facility.  The package appeared to contain a lap top computer.
02-MAR-2012 DOT 5800.1 FormNo I2012030493
Lithium battery
Report form Federal Express indicated a fire in a package at its Toluca, Mexico facility.  When asked, the consignee reported that he had ordered a lithium battery for a bicycle.
25-FEB-2012Air Carrier report
Lithium-ion batteries
Lithium-ion battery powered surf board
Initial report form Federal Express indicated that a smoking unit load device was discovered at the Memphis, TN airport facility. Inspection revealed the contents of the ULD included a smoking and burning self-propelled surf board.
29-MAR-2011DOT5800.1 Form
Lithium ion batteries
Battery packs for electric bicycles
Initial report from Federal Express indicated that the batteries offered for shipment from Kwun Tong, China to Southampton, England caught fire for an unknown reason at the facility in Tsun Wan, Hong Kong.
Lithium-ion batteries contained in equip. including lithium polymer batteries
Initial report from Federal Express indicated that the package offered for shipment from Mumbai, India to Shenzen, China was observed to be smoking by a customs official at the facility in Guangahou, China.   Subsequent indicated the package contained the batteries.
6-OCT-2010DOT5800.1Form and FAA report
Lithium ion battery
Initial report from United Parcel Service indicated that an electric storage acid battery offered for air shipment from Shanghai, China was observed smoking at the facility in Cerritos, CA.  Subsequent investigation by FAA indicated that the battery appeared to be an 18.5 Volt, 30Ah (555Wh) Lithium Ion Battery (Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LiCo02)).
28-AUG- 2010DOT5800.1Form
CR 123A primary lithium battery in a device
Initial report from Fed Ex indicated that the flashlight in a backpack belonging to a jumpseating crewing member caught on fire while at the gate in Memphis, TN.  The report indicated that one of the flashlight batteries exhibited signs of thermal runaway causing the fire.
9-FEB-2010Report from Air Carrier
Lithium metal w/liquid cathode battery
Initial report from United Parcel Service Airline indicated that, subsequent to air transport from Hong Kong, during the local ground portion of the delivery, the truck driver heard a loud pop.  First responders were called to the scene.  One of the batteries in one of the packages in the shipment ruptured, discharged soot and dislodged other batteries in the package.
25-AUG-2009 Report from Air Carrier
Initial report indicates Lithium-ion battery
GPS tracking device
Initial report from Federal Express indicated that a burning and smoking package was discovered at the Medford, MA facility.  The package was in route to Seattle, WA.  An unsuccessful attempt was made to extinguish the fire by cutting open the package and applying a fire extinguisher.  The Fire Department had to be called.  Subsequent inspection revealed that two of the devices heated and caused the surrounding packaging to ignite.
15-AUG-2009Report from Air Carrier
Lithium-ion battery
Initial report from United Parcel Service Airline indicated that a smoldering package was noticed at its Taiwan Hub.  The package was transported from Macau, China.  Inspection of other packages in the same consignment indicated that similar batteries were offered without terminal protection.
14-AUG-2009 Report from Air Carrier
Lithium metal batteries
Initial report from Federal Express indicated that upon landing at Minneapolis-St. Paul Airport the crew was alerted to a fire by a warning light associated with a forward compartment.  Upon subsequent inspection of the relevant Unit Load Device, numerous packages were discovered with smoke and fire damage.
15-JULY-2009Report from Air Carrier – DOT 5800.1 Form
Lithium-ion cell phone batteries
Transport-ed loose” in pack-ages without out cell phones
Initial report from United Parcel Service Airline indicated that one of several related packages transported from Romulus, MI was discovered to be emitting smoke and smoldering in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.  Upon inspection, package contained numerous loose lithium-ion batteries with “…no protection of the contact points…”  Package documentation indicated, “used batteries – non haz.”
18-JUN-2009 Report from Air Carrier
Bicycle Power Device
Initial report from United Parcel Service Airline indicated that a burned package was discovered in Honolulu inside a Unit Load Device as it was being unloaded.  The package was originally loaded in Philadelphia and was subsequently transported on UPS flight # 2967 from Ontario, California.  DOT Form 5800.1 report to follow.
06-AUG-2008Air carrier report
Lithium ion
Electrical equip.
UPS Airline reports that a package containing LED lamps powered by excepted lithium ion batteries was transported on UPS#0213 on 04-AUG from Louisville, KY to Cologne, Germany.  It was subsequently observed smoking in a UPS ground sort facility in Copenhagen, Denmark.
27-DEC-2007Air carrier incident report
Lithium metal (lithium manganese dioxide)House of Batteries prototype, 15-volt, (Five Ultralife 3-volt D cells connected in series).  The battery contained 16.65 grams of lithium (3.3 grams per cell).
SSCOR medical suction pump
Shipment was submitted to UPS for “2nd day Air” service.  After pick-up and ground transportation, the package “spontaneously combusted” on the conveyor at a UPS package sort facility in Cerritos, Calif.  An employee put out the fire with a facility fire extinguisher.
15-DEC-2007Air carrier incident report
Lithium ion/poly-mer for radio-controlled model helicopter
Packed with radio controlled helicopter kit
Cargo flight
A package containing an R/C helicopter kit with lithium polymer batteries was being sent from Hong Kong to the Netherlands.  It was discovered emitting smoke at the FedEx sort center in Frankfurt, Germany.  The package was brought outside the building and the fire was extinguished.
11-DEC-2007Air carrier report
Lithium ion/poly-mer for radio controlled model planes:FlightPower F3A, 5350 mAh, 18.5 V
Cargo flight
A package of lithium polymer batteries for remote control aircraft was being transported by UPS from Argentina to San Marino via Cologne, Germany.  At the UPS hub in Cologne, a customs inspector cut into the box with a knife, accidentally cutting into a battery which then caught fire.  The battery had a soft plastic exterior without a hard metal shell.  A fire alarm was triggered and 400-500 people were evacuated from the facility for 35 minutes. The transport section of the accompanying MSDS stated the batteries were “non-regulated.”
30-SEP-07Air carrier report
Lithium-ionXiamen Powerlong  3.7v, 4000 mAh and 5200 mAh
Cargo flight
After flying from Hong Kong, a Korea-bound box was emitting smoke upon offload at the FedEx Hub at Subic Bay, Philippines. No flames were seen. The box was removed from the sort. The outer-most box was an overpack containing three inner fiberboard boxes. It’s believed each of the inner boxes contained 120 lithium-ion batteries. The fire was contained to one inner box.
08-AUG-2007Report from German transport officials
Lithium polymer (ion)Arkai 11.1 Volt
Cargo flight
The batteries traveled from Hong Kong to Frankfurt on a FedEx flight.  During customs inspection, one of the 440 batteries in the package started to burn.
14-Dec-2006Report from air carrier
Counterfeit CR123A, lithium metal
Flashlight “Superfire WF-501B”
Cargo flight
During a UPS cargo flight from Sydney, Australia to Guangzhou, China, at 38,000 ft., the crew heard a loud bang.  A crewmember found that his flashlight in a bag next to his seat was warm and had a strong odor coming from it.  The flashlight was opened and there was soot/residue from burning. One of the two batteries (now determined to be counterfeit) was damaged.  Earlier the crewmember had dropped the flashlight about 6 inches into his bag and heard a thump.
11-Nov-2006Notification by US Customs and CPSCFAA case # 2007WP700045
Lithium ion cell phone batteries
Cargo flight
After being shipped by air from China to the US, some batteries were selected for inspection by US Customs.  While on the desk of an import specialist, the battery started emitting sparking flames and smoke.
15-Sep-2006FAA Case # 2006GL700427
Silver oxide button cells, various sizes
Cargo flight
During off-loading at their Plymouth, MN facility, DHL/Airborne personnel discovered two boxes that were warm to the touch.  The boxes were opened and found to contain hundreds and hundreds of button cell batteries loosely packed together in a plastic bag liner.  Batteries were being shipped by a small business battery recycler that stated they thought all batteries were discharged.  Tests showed many still had positive voltage.
17-Jul-2006FedEx Notification to FAA
EaglePicher-Kokam Lithium ion/poly-mer(used for remote control models), 122 batteries of various sizes
Cargo flight
The unlabeled/marked package was discovered to have caught fire while being held in bond for customs clearance in Korea. Package had traveled to Korea in FedEx system from Vienna via Paris and Subic Bay.
03-MAR-2006FedEx incident report
Lithium ion button cells, mfr. by Lixing
Cargo flight
US-bound package was noticed to be smoking at outbound FedEx station in Shenzen, China. Upon inspection, the package of lithium ion batteries was discovered to be on fire.
29-JUN-2005FAA case # 2005WP700218DOT Incident report # 2005080470
Lithium Ion
Cargo flight
At UPS in Ontario, Calif., during unloading of a ULD from Shanghai, it was discovered that a fire had taken place inside the ULD. A package containing a lithium-ion battery pack was identified as the source of the fire.  Upon discovery, the burnt package and its contents were cool to the touch and there was no smoldering evident.
11-FEB-2005FAA incident summaryDOT incident report # 2005030047
Lithium battery, solid cathode, manufactured by Eagle Picher of Surrey, BC, Canada.
Cargo flight
An undeclared package containing 18 lithium batteries caught fire while being unloaded from a conveyor belt at the FedEx facility in White Bear Lake, MN. FedEx cargo handlers report hearing a “pop” sound and then seeing the box “lifted” off the conveyor belt by the force.  The shipment had flown from Los Angeles to Minneapolis and was to be trucked to Clear Lake, WI.  Only one battery caught fire.
07-AUG-2004FAA incident summary statement, DOT Incident Report #2004081622
Lithium-ion batteries assembled together in a plastic case
Cargo flight
Prototype lithium batteries shipped under a competent authority approval from California to Europe apparently started a fire in a ULD during the loading process at the FedEx Memphis hub.  The ULD had just been loaded for a transatlantic flight (Memphis-Paris). The ULD and many other packages in it were damaged/destroyed by fire.  Shipment apparently was in violation of the DOT approval allowing the prototype battery to be shipped.
12-AUG-2002DOT Incident report #2002090134
Lithium battery (excepted)
Samsung minicomputer (palm pilot)
Cargo flight
Burning odor detected by handlers at the Los Angeles FedEx inbound package sort center.  Battery apparently short-circuited causing the bubble wrap in the package to burn and melt onto the unit.
12-APR-2002DOT Incident report #2002050519
Lithium batteries
Cargo flight
Lithium batteries shipped under exception by Abbott Labs did not have terminals protected from short circuit.  Started fire inside package at FedEx Indy sort facility.
07-JUN-1999DOT Incident Report
“Non-regulated” batteries.Actual type unknown.
Cargo flight
Package noticed during FedEx operation in Greensboro, NC to have burning smell.  Inner batteries apparently arced causing batteries to burn inside the package.  Incident report stated batteries had not been packaged correctly.
10-OCT-1998FAA AAL Special Agent statement
336 laptop computers
Cargo flight
Fire warning diverted cargo aircraft.  Captain/flight engineer inspected cargo area.  Both noted heat rising between pallets on jet flat, as well as strange odor and lung irritation.  Fire fighters sprayed pallet with retardant.  No further evidence of heat exposure or fire.
19-MAY-1998FAA #EA19980082
Unspeci-fied batteries
Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) units (2)
Cargo at IAC warehouse
One of the UPS units exploded during offloading of a truck.
26-SEP-1996DOT Incident report #1996110343
Lithium batteries
Cargo flight
Eight lithium batteries were connected in a series and packed with bubble wrap inside a plastic express envelope.  There were exposed connections on one end and loose wires on the other end.  The batteries were not secured from movement within the package and a short-circuit resulted causing the packaging to burn. Burnt package discovered at Airborne sort center after first flight and prior to trans-Pacific cargo flight.
08-MAY-1994UK CAA DG Occurrence Report Database (G. Leach)
Duracell lithium batteries (excepted from ICAO regulation by SP A45)
Intended to go as cargo on passenger
Consignment of lithium batteries found emitting smoke in ULD during truck transport to LHR.  Fire damage.  Batteries were smaller in diameter than a dime and about 5 mm high.  They had been tossed loosely into a box.  Positive and negative terminals had “tails” which were prone to short circuiting.  The shipper was prosecuted by the UK CAA for failure to comply with Special Provision A45 of the ICAO Technical Instructions and fined £1200 with £300 costs.


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