quinta-feira, 17 de fevereiro de 2011

Have You Had Flight Simulator's Lazy Responses in Your Training?


The total flight simulator system processing time required for an input signal from a pilot primary flight control until motion system, visual system or instrument response. It is the overall time delay incurred from signal input until output response and is independent of the characteristic delay of the aeroplane simulated.


O tempo total exigido do processamento do sistema de simulador de voo para um sinal de entrada [feito] por um piloto através do controle de voo primário [demorar] até o sistema se mover, o sistema ser visualizado ou [obter] a reposta de um instrumento.

É a demora total de tempo implicada da entrada do sinal até a resposta de saída e é independente da demora característica do avião simulado.

For initial evaluation of flight simulators, the aeroplane manufacturer’s validation flight test data is preferred.

Para avaliação inicial de simuladores de voo, os dados de validação dos testes de vôo do fabricante do avião são preferidos.

The Problem

• Loss of control is the leading cause of fatalities in the worldwide commercial jet fleet

• In early 2010, the NTSB recommended:

– training centers develop and conduct training that incorporates stalls that are fully developed and unexpected

– simulation model fidelity requirements to support an expanded set of stall recovery training requirements be defined and codified

Today’s Upset Training Requirements

• FAA:

Requires recoveries in the simulator from approach-to-stalls in the clean, takeoff, and landing configurations

• European Aviation Safety Agency

Used to demonstrate ability to recover from full stall, although now it is typically a briefing

• Transport Canada

Upset training is required for airline operations

O Problema

• Perda de controle é a causa líder de fatalidades na frota mundial de jatos comerciais

• No início de 2010, a NTSB recomendou:
-  centros de treinamento desenvolvam e conduzam treinamento que incorporem perda de sustentação que seja totalmente avançada e inesperada
-  requisitos de modelo de fidelidade de simulação para apoiar uma série ampliada de requisitos de treinamento de recuperação de perda de sustentação

Requisitos de Treinamento Apreensivo de Hoje

• FAA:
Exige recuperações no simulador de vôo das recuperações de aproximação de perda de sustentação nas configurações limpa, decolagem e pouso

Acostumado a demonstrar habilidade para recuperar perda total de sustentação, embora isso seja tipicamente um briefing

Treinamento com Transtorno é requerido para operações de linhas aéreas




1.1 Flight deck, a full-scale replica of the aeroplane simulated.
Direction of movement of controls and switches identical to that in the aeroplane. Equipment for operation of the cockpit windows should be included in the flight simulator, but the actual windows need not be operable.

Note - The flight deck, for flight simulator purposes, consists of all that space forward of a cross section of the fuselage at the most extreme aft setting of the pilots’ seats. Additional required flight crew member duty stations and those required bulkheads aft of the pilots’ seats are also considered part of the flight deck and shall replicate the aeroplane.

1.2 Circuit breakers that affect procedures and/or result in observable flight deck indications properly located and functionally accurate.

1.3 Flight dynamics model that accounts for various combinations of drag and thrust normally encountered in flight corresponding to actual flight conditions, including the effect of change in aeroplane attitude, thrust, drag, altitude, temperature, gross mass, moments of inertia, centre of gravity location and configuration.

1.4 All relevant instrument indications involved in the simulation of the applicable aeroplane to automatically respond to control movement by a flight crew member or external disturbance to the simulated aeroplane, i.e. turbulence or wind shear.

1.5 Communications, navigation, and caution and warning equipment corresponding to that installed in the applicant’s aeroplane with operation within the tolerances prescribed for the applicable airborne equipment.

1.6 In addition to the flight crew member duty stations, three suitable seats for the instructor/observer and authority inspector. The authority will consider options to this requirement based on unique flight deck configurations. The location of these seats shall provide an adequate view of the pilots’ panels and forward windows.

Observer seats need not represent those found in the aeroplane but shall be adequately secured to the floor of the flight simulator, fitted with positive restraint devices and of sufficient integrity to safely restrain the occupant during any known or predicted motion system excursion.

1.7 Flight simulator systems to simulate the applicable aeroplane system operation, both on the ground and in flight. Systems shall be operative to the extent that all normal, abnormal and emergency operating procedures can be accomplished.

1.8 Instructor controls to enable the operator to control all required system variables and insert abnormal or emergency conditions into the aeroplane systems.

1.9 Control forces and control travel which correspond to that of the replicated aeroplane. Control forces should react in the same manner as in the aeroplane under the same flight conditions.

1.10 Ground handling and aerodynamic programming to include:

1.10.1 Ground effect. For example: round-out, flare and touchdown.
This requires data on lift, drag, pitching moment, trim and power in ground effect.

1.10.2 Ground reaction. Reaction of the aeroplane upon contact with the runway during landing to include strut deflections, tire friction, side forces and other appropriate data, such as weight and speed, necessary to identify the flight condition and configuration.

1.10.3 Ground handling characteristics. Steering inputs to include crosswind, braking, thrust reversing, deceleration and turning radius.

1.11 Wind shear models which provide training in the specific skills required for recognition of wind shear phenomena and execution of required manoeuvres. Such models shall be representative of measured or accident derived winds, but may include simplifications which ensure repeatable encounters. For example, models may consist of independent variable winds in multiple simultaneous components. Wind models should be available for the following critical phases of flight:

1) prior to take-off rotation;

2) at lift-off;

3) during initial climb;

4) short final approach.

Note - The United States FAA Wind Shear Training Aid, wind models from the United Kingdom Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE), the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) project or other recognized sources may be implemented and shall be supported and properly referenced in the QTG. Wind models from alternative sources may also be used if supported by aeroplane related data and such data are properly supported and referenced in the QTG.

Use of alternative data must be coordinated with the authority prior to submission of the QTG for approval.

1.12 Representative crosswinds and instructor controls for wind speed and direction.

1.13 Representative stopping and directional control forces for at least the following runway conditions based on aeroplane related data:

1) dry;

2) wet;

3) icy;

4) patchy wet;

5) patchy icy;

6) wet on rubber residue in touchdown zone.

1.14 Representative brake and tire failure dynamics (including antiskid) and decreased braking efficiency due to brake temperatures based on aeroplane related data.

1.15 A means for quickly and effectively conducting daily testing of flight simulator programming and hardware.

1.16 Flight simulator computer capacity, accuracy, resolution and dynamic response to fully support the overall flight simulator fidelity.

1.17 Control feel dynamics which replicate the aeroplane simulated.

Free response of the controls shall match that of the aeroplane within tolerance given in Appendix B. Initial and upgrade evaluations will include control-free response (pitch, roll and yaw controllers) measurements recorded at the controls. The measured responses shall correspond to those of the aeroplane in take-off, cruise and landing configurations.

1.17.1 For aeroplanes with irreversible control systems, measurements may be obtained on the ground if proper pitot static inputs are provided to represent conditions typical of those encountered in flight. Engineering validation or aeroplane manufacturer rationale shall be submitted as justification to ground test or to omit a configuration.

1.17.2 For simulators requiring static and dynamic tests at the controls, special test fixtures will not be required during initial evaluations if the QTG shows both test fixture results and alternate test method results, such as computer data plots, which were obtained concurrently. Repeat of the alternate method during initial
evaluation may then satisfy this requirement.

1.18 Relative response of the visual system, flight deck instruments and initial motion system coupled closely to provide integrated sensory cues. Visual scene changes from steady state disturbance (i.e. the start of the scan of the first video field containing different information) shall occur within the system dynamic response limit of 150 milliseconds (ms). Motion onset shall also occur within the system dynamic response limit of 150 ms. While motion onset should occur before the start of the scan of the first video field containing different information, it must occur before the end of the scan of the same video field. The test to determine compliance with these requirements shall include simultaneously recording the output from the pilot’s pitch, roll and yaw controllers, the output from the accelerometer attached to the motion system platform located at an acceptable location near the pilots’ seats, the output signal to the visual system display (including visual system analog delays) and the output signal to the pilot’s attitude indicator or an equivalent test approved by the authority. The following two methods are acceptable means to prove compliance with the above requirement:

1.18.1 Transport delay: A transport delay test may be used to demonstrate that the flight simulator system response does not exceed 150 ms. This test shall measure all the delays encountered by a step signal migrating from the pilot’s control through the control loading electronics and interfacing through all the simulation software modules in the correct order, using a handshaking protocol, finally through the normal output interfaces to the motion system, to the visual system and instrument displays. A recordable start time for the test should be provided by a pilot flight control input. The test mode shall permit normal computation time to be consumed and shall not alter the flow of information through the hardware/software system. The transport delay of the system is then the time between the control input and the individual hardware responses. It need only be measured once in each axis.

1.18.2 Latency: The visual system, flight deck instruments and initial motion system response shall respond to abrupt pitch, roll and yaw inputs from the pilot’s position within 150 ms of the time, but not before the time, when the aeroplane would respond under the same conditions. The objective of the test is to compare the recorded response of the flight simulator to that of the actual aeroplane data in the take-off, cruise and landing configuration for rapid control inputs in all three rotational axes. The intent is to verify that the simulator system response does not exceed 150 ms (this does not include aeroplane response time as per the manufacturer’s data) and that the motion and visual cues relate to actual aeroplane responses. For aeroplane response, acceleration in the appropriate corresponding rotational axis is preferred.

1.19 Aerodynamic modelling, that includes, for aeroplanes issued an original type certificate after June 1980, low altitude level flight ground effect, Mach effect at high altitude, normal and reverse dynamic thrust effect on control surfaces, aeroelastic effect and representations of non-linearities due to side-slip based on aeroplane flight test data provided by the aeroplane manufacturer.

1.20 Modelling that includes the effects of airframe and engine icing.

1.21 Aerodynamic and ground reaction modelling for the effects of reverse thrust on directional control.

1.22 Realistic implementation of aeroplane mass properties, including mass, centre of gravity and moments of inertia as a function of payload and fuel loading.

1.23 Self-testing for simulator hardware and programming to determine compliance with the simulator performance tests as prescribed in Appendix B. Evidence of testing must include flight simulator number, date, time, conditions, tolerances and the appropriate dependent variables portrayed in comparison to the
aeroplane data. Automatic flagging of “out-of-tolerance” situations is encouraged.

1.24 Timely permanent update of flight simulator hardware and programming subsequent to aeroplane modification.

1.25 Daily pre-flight documentation either in the daily log or in a location easily accessible for review.


2.1 Motion cues perceived by the pilot representative of aeroplane motions (e.g. touchdown cues should be a function of the simulated rate of descent).

2.2 A motion system which produces cues at least equivalent to those of a six-degree-of-freedom synergistic platform motion system.

2.3 A means of recording the motion response time as required.

2.4 Motion effects programming to include:

2.4.1 Effects of runway rumble, oleo deflections, ground speed, uneven runway, centre line lights and taxiway characteristics;

2.4.2 Buffets on the ground due to spoiler/speed-brake extension and thrust reversal;

2.4.3 Bumps associated with the landing gear;

2.4.4 Buffet during extension and retraction of landing gear;

2.4.5 Buffet in the air due to flap and spoiler/speed-brake extension;

2.4.6 Approach-to-stall buffet;

2.4.7 Touchdown cues for main and nose gear;

2.4.8 Nosewheel scuffing;

2.4.9 Thrust effect with brakes set;

2.4.10 Mach and manoeuvre buffet;

2.4.11 Tire failure dynamics;

2.4.12 Engine malfunction and engine damage; and

2.4.13 Tail and pod strike.

2.5 Motion vibrations: Tests with recorded results that allow the comparison of relative amplitudes versus frequency are required.

2.5.1 Characteristic motion vibrations that result from operation of the aeroplane, in so far as vibration marks an event or aeroplane state that can be sensed at the flight deck, shall be present. The flight simulator shall be programmed and instrumented in such a manner that the characteristic vibration modes can be measured and
compared to aeroplane data.

2.5.2 Aeroplane data are also required to define flight deck motions when the aeroplane is subjected to atmospheric disturbances.

General purpose disturbance models that approximate demonstrable flight test data are acceptable. Tests with recorded results that allow the comparison of relative amplitudes versus frequency are required.


3.1 Visual system capable of meeting all the standards of this appendix and Appendices B and C.

3.2 Continuous, cross-cockpit, minimum collimated visual field of view providing each pilot with 180 degrees horizontal and 40 degrees vertical field of view. Application of tolerances requires the field of view to be not less than a total of 176 measured degrees horizontal field of view (including not less than ±88 measured degrees either side of the centre of the design eye point) and not less than a total of 36 measured degrees vertical field of view from the pilot’s and co-pilot’s eye points.

3.3 A means of recording the visual response time for visual systems as required.

3.4 Visual textural cues to assess sink rate and depth perception during take-off and landing.

3.5 Horizon and attitude correlated to the simulated attitude indicator.

3.6 A minimum of ten levels of occulting.

3.7 Surface resolution demonstrated by a test pattern of objects shown to occupy a visual angle of not greater than 2 arc minutes in the visual display used on a scene from the pilot’s eye point.

3.8 Light-point size — not greater than 5 arc minutes.

3.9 Light-point contrast ratio — not less than 25:1.

3.10 Daylight, twilight (dusk/dawn) and night visual capability as defined by terms in the glossary section of this document

3.10.1 Contrast ratio. A raster drawn test pattern filling the entire visual scene (three or more channels) shall consist of a matrix of black and white squares no larger than 10 degrees and no smaller than 5 degrees per channel with a white square in the centre of each channel.


4.1 Significant flight deck sounds corresponding to those of the aeroplane which result from pilot actions.

4.2 Sound of precipitation, rain removal equipment and other significant aeroplane noises perceptible to the pilot during normal and abnormal operations and the sound of a crash when the simulator is landed in excess of limitations.

4.3 Comparable amplitude and frequency of flight deck noises, including engine and airframe sounds. The sounds shall be coordinated with the required weather.

4.4 The volume control shall have an indication of sound level setting which meets all qualification requirements.


ICAO Doc 9625 AN/938, Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulators, 2003