An hour before accident the wind speed reached 226 Km/h
(see graph below)
Offshore lights that guide pilots into Jamaica's main airport had been knocked out for more than a month when an American Airlines jet landed in driving rain and overshot the runway.
Lights leading to the other end of the runway were functioning, but wind conditions made that approach less desirable.
It had taken off from Miami International Airport at 8:52 p.m. And arrived in Kingston at 10:22 p.m.
Runway 12 Elevations - Landing end, 8. ARP (mid-runway) 10, far end 17.
Runway 12 wet, Braking Action is Good
GOOD: No degradation of braking action.
FAIR: Somewhat degraded braking conditions.
POOR: Very degraded braking conditions.
NIL: No braking action.
Aerodynamic, not disc, braking is more important when runway conditions have deteriorated enough to necessitate a braking action report. To use the aerodynamic braking action the engineers gave you, first fly at the correct approach speed. Then, once in the landing flare, hold the aircraft’s nose off the runway as long as possible to aid in aerodynamic braking. Finally, when the airplane has settled on the runway use the brakes sparingly – or not at all. This is not the time to slam on the brakes to make the first taxiway. Good rudder and aileron skills will also come in handy – the longitudinal axis of the airplane should be aligned with the runway centerline. This seems rudimentary until one wheel hits the ice first and causes a sudden jolt.
Remember, any braking action report implies that braking action is diminished – the only question pilots have to answer is “by how much?”.
These practices should keep you heading down the runway when braking action reports are GOOD or FAIR.
REILs not operating
Runway End Identifier Lights
REILs are installed at many airfields to provide rapid and positive identification of the approach end of a particular runway. They are effective for:
a. Identification of a runway surrounded by a preponderance of other lighting;
b. Identification of a runway which lacks contrast with surrounding terrain; and
c. Identification of a runway during reduced visibility.
These lights consist of a pair of synchronized flashing lights located on each side of the runway threshold facing the approach area. Both Runway 12 and Runway 30 have omni-directional REILs. The REIL system can be replaced with funding assistance from the JCAA to allow for improved pilot control. Pilots may adjust the intensity of the lights as they approach for landing by keying or “clicking” the aircraft’s microphone in accordance with the Pilot Control Lighting Operating Procedures.