segunda-feira, 28 de dezembro de 2009

AA331 - Kingston Jamaica - Overran the end of the runway 12

AA331 - Kingston Jamaica

An hour before accident the wind speed reached 226 Km/h
(see graph below)



Offshore lights that guide pilots into Jamaica's main airport had been knocked out for more than a month when an American Airlines jet landed in driving rain and overshot the runway.
Lights leading to the other end of the runway were functioning, but wind conditions made that approach less desirable.
It had taken off from Miami International Airport at 8:52 p.m. And arrived in Kingston at 10:22 p.m.



KIN: Offset ILS DME (LLZ 120°, RWY 117°) 3° GS, DA 278, RWY Elev 8

Runway 12 Elevations - Landing end, 8. ARP (mid-runway) 10, far end 17.

Runway 12 wet, Braking Action is Good

GOOD: No degradation of braking action.


FAIR: Somewhat degraded braking conditions.

POOR: Very degraded braking conditions.

NIL: No braking action.

Aerodynamic, not disc, braking is more important when runway conditions have deteriorated enough to necessitate a braking action report. To use the aerodynamic braking action the engineers gave you, first fly at the correct approach speed. Then, once in the landing flare, hold the aircraft’s nose off the runway as long as possible to aid in aerodynamic braking. Finally, when the airplane has settled on the runway use the brakes sparingly – or not at all. This is not the time to slam on the brakes to make the first taxiway. Good rudder and aileron skills will also come in handy – the longitudinal axis of the airplane should be aligned with the runway centerline. This seems rudimentary until one wheel hits the ice first and causes a sudden jolt.

Remember, any braking action report implies that braking action is diminished – the only question pilots have to answer is “by how much?”.
These practices should keep you heading down the runway when braking action reports are GOOD or FAIR.



REILs not operating



Runway End Identifier Lights

REILs are installed at many airfields to provide rapid and positive identification of the approach end of a particular runway. They are effective for:
a. Identification of a runway surrounded by a preponderance of other lighting;
b. Identification of a runway which lacks contrast with surrounding terrain; and
c. Identification of a runway during reduced visibility.
These lights consist of a pair of synchronized flashing lights located on each side of the runway threshold facing the approach area. Both Runway 12 and Runway 30 have omni-directional REILs. The REIL system can be replaced with funding assistance from the JCAA to allow for improved pilot control. Pilots may adjust the intensity of the lights as they approach for landing by keying or “clicking” the aircraft’s microphone in accordance with the Pilot Control Lighting Operating Procedures.



"The only instrument approaches approaches at KIN are for runway 12 because the wind is usually easterly. An ILS was put in a couple of years ago on RWY 12. This ILS is offset requiring an adjustment by about 400 feet to align with the runway."




"If you wanted to land on RWY 30 and it was raining heavy it is unlikely you would be able to see to descend visually below the MSA which is about 9000' due to the mountains to the North.



Therefore to land on R/W 30 you would have to fly down the R/W 12 ILS to the circling minima of approximately 1000 feet. In heavy rain you may well not be visual. You would have to either goaround at that minima or fly a visual circuit and maintain visual contact with the runway. A visual circuit at 1000 feet in heavy rain in an airliner at night is not something a professional pilot would choose. Therefore it is far more preferable to choose the ILS with an acceptable tailwind."


BF


BF


METAR


"Norman Manley International [airport] is a good place when the weather is okay, but it has an ILS approach that is offset 3 degrees to the runway. Doesn't sound like a lot, but when you break out of the clouds the runway isn't right in front of you like other ILS approaches. When you do touch down, the runway isn't grooved and standing water is a problem. Also, accumulated rubber from many prior landings make the touchdown area really slick. The controllers are notorious for calling the winds "calm" when they're really not so. Still, all in all it's not the worst airport we fly into. If you told me we'd have a runway overrun accident I'd have told you it would happen at Managua or Guatemala City. Both are worse than Kingston."

domingo, 20 de dezembro de 2009

Pilot's Guide to Ground Icing by NASA



http://aircrafticing.grc.nasa.gov/courses_ground.html

Pilot's Guide to Ground Icing   (below are some scraps from the course)

Who should take this course?



Every pilot who could encounter ground icing - whether their aircraft needs to be cleaned or protected from frozen contamination.

What is covered in this course?


The problems caused by ground icing


When you are likely to encounter ground icing


The basics about aircraft de/anti-icing fluids


How to de-ice and anti-ice your aircraft


How long will it take?


That depends on you. This course is designed to let you determine what you need to know given the type of flying that you do. You can spend as litle as 60 minutes going through the highlights, but you can take much longer (2-3 hours) if you explore all related information and interactive features.




If the Airspeed Indicator reads ZERO during the takeoff roll, the PITOT tube is BLOCKED. If you do not REJECT the takeoff, but continue to climb-out, the Airspeed Indicator will appear to function shortly after takeoff, but will give you misleading information. If the STATIC ports are not blocked, the Indicated Airspeed will INCREASE with altitude, not AIRSPEED. As the airplane climbs, the Indicated Airspeed eventually exceed the actual airspeed.

Do not be tricked into increasing the pitch attitude and/or reducing thrust - these could cause a perfectly flying airplane to stall.






Videos
Airport hit by heavy snow click here to watch some Snow Removal Videos at airports


Happy New Year 2010


domingo, 6 de dezembro de 2009

Pilots, Flight Attendants and Air Travellers Insomnia - Low MELATONIN level

Nova pesquisa descobriu como o cérebro pode comandar maior secreção de melatonina e você cair no sono rapidamente

Código Internacional de Doenças (CID)

G47.0 Disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep [insomnias]
G47.1 Disorders of excessive somnolence [hypersomnias]
G47.2 Disorders of the sleep-wake schedule
         Delayed sleep phase syndrome
         Irregular sleep-wake pattern



O que é MELATONINA?

Melatonina é um hormônio produzido pela glandula pineal, uma pequena gLândula no cérebro.

Seu corpo produz cerca de 0.1 mg de melatonina diariamente. doses de 10-50 mg são aparentemente usadas em tratamento de câncer. E um estudo alemão sugeriu que 30 mg de maltonina diariamente cpoderia agir como contraceptivo, portanto seja cuidadoso acerca de quanto você toma melatonina.



Melatonina ajuda controlar seu sono e ciclos de acordar. Muito pouca quantidade dela é encontrada em alimentos tais como carnes, grãos, frutas e vegetais. Você pode também comprá-la como um suplemento.


Seu corpo tem seu próprio relógio interno que controla seu ciclo natural de sono e horas de acordar. Em parte, seu relógio interno controla quanta melatonina seu corpo produz. Normalmente, os níveis de melatonina começam a subir ao cair da noite, permanece alto por boa parte da noite e então cai nas primeiras horas da manhã, antes do nascer-do-sol.


A luz afeta quanta melatonina seu corpo produz. Durante os dias mais curtos dos meses do inverno, seu corpo pode produzir melatonina mais cedo ou mais tarde do dia que o usual. Esta mudança pode conduzir ao simtomas da Doença de Afetação Sazonal. (SAD = Seasonal Affective Disorder), ou depressão de inverno.[Wehr T, et al. (2001). A circadian signal of change of season in patients with seasonal affective disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58(12): 1108–1114.]


Os níveis naturais de melatonina lentamente caem com a idade. Alguns adultos idosos produzem muito pouca quantidade dela ou às vezes nenhuma quantidade ao todo.


Pilotos de avião, comissárias de voo bem como viajantes assíduos de linhas aéreas buscam socorro no suplemento de MELATONINA, a usando no tratamento de JET LAG (voo com cruzamento de vários fusos horários) ou problemas de sono (insônia).


Cientistas estão também observando outros bons usos da melatonina, tais como:


- Tratamento de Doença de Afetação Sazonal (SAD)
- Ajuda no controle de padrões de sono para pessoas que trabalhan em  turnos   de trabalho noturno
- Redução de dores de cabeça crônica


A melatonina está também sendo estudada para ver se ela pode ser usada no tratamento de problemas de sono em pessoas que são cegas [Melatonin (2004 July). Review of Natural Products. St. Louis: Wolters Kluwer Health.]


Uma vez que essas pessoas não podem ver luz, elas podem ter problemas de sono tais como dormir durante o dia e acordarem à noite.


Agora uma nova pesquisa descobriu um método de aliviar a insônia e cair no sono em menos de 2(dois) minutos.


Basta o nosso cérebro receber uma mensagem através de uma imagem bem notável de que a noite está chegando.


O método é simples.
Deite-se, feche os olhos imaginando esta foto.
Inspire pelo nariz profundamente, solte o ar pela boca lentamente.
Inspire profundamente outra vez, solte o ar lentamente.
O sono cai rapidamente logo após a terceira inspiração de ar.


O cérebro ao receber a informação de que a noite (através da imagem do por-do-sol) está chegando, "começa secretar quantidade maior de melatonina."
   
    Jericoacoara, CE, Brasil por George Rocha


 
"Nossas descobertas tem implicações para humanos", disse o lider autor Ilia Karatsoreos, PhD, da Universidade Rockefeller. "Em nossa sociedade moderna industrializada, a interrupção do nosso cíclo individual do rítmo de atividades diárias em 24 horas, em se tornado lugar comum, do turno de trabalho e JET LAG à presença constante de iluminação elétrica. Estas interrupções não são somente um aborrecimento, elas podem também conduzir a sérios problemas de segurança e saúde", disse ele.



"Um numero de doutores, inclusive eu mesmo, acreditamos que malatonina (em dose de 2.5 mg tomadas à noite) pode ser de ajuda significativa para algumas pessoas com disordens de sono, especialmente aquelas cujo ciclo normal de sono/acordar tem se tornado severamente distorcido no curso de suas doenças". [Dr. Charles Shepherd, "Living With ME", p78]

quarta-feira, 2 de dezembro de 2009

Polished Frost Takeoffs No More - effective February 1, 2010




FAR 135.227:

a) No pilot may take off an aircraft that has frost, snow, or ice adhering to any rotor blade, propeller, windshield, wing, stabilizing or control surface, to a powerplant installation, or to an airspeed, altimeter, rate of climb, or flight attitude instrument system, except under the following conditions:

(1) Takeoffs may be made with frost adhering to the wings, or stabilizing or control surfaces, if the frost has been polished to make it smooth.


(2) Takeoffs may be made with frost under the wing in the area of the fuel tanks if authorized by the administrator.




U.S. air safety regulators have decided, after almost 50 years, that it's no longer safe for private and cargo aircraft to fly with "polished frost'' on their wings.

Frozen Contaminants and their Causes


Federal Aviation Administration


14 CFR Parts 91, 125 and 135

SUMMARY: The FAA is removing certain provisions in its regulations that allow for operations with "polished frost'' (i.e., frost polished to make it smooth) on the wings and stabilizing and control surfaces of  aircraft. The rule is expected to increase safety by not allowing operations with ``polished frost,'' which the FAA has determined increases the risk of unsafe flight.

DATES: These amendments become effective February 1, 2010.

  Although polishing frost is currently permitted under part 91 subpart F, and parts 125 and 135, current FAA guidance developed subsequent to the implementation of those regulations cautions against this practice.

There are at least 12 \1\ known accidents in which individuals attempted to smooth or polish frost, but the aircraft failed to generate enough lift and crashed shortly after takeoff.\2\ The U.S.

National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has urged operators to ensure that critical surfaces are free of contamination prior to take off.

The FAA has determined that an unsafe condition exists if all wing surfaces, other than those under the wing in the area of the fuel tanks,\3\ and other critical surfaces are not uniformly smooth upon takeoff and is therefore removing references to ``polished frost'' from the regulations. This final rule requires operators, when performing operations under part 91 subpart F, part 125, or part 135, to remove all frost from critical surfaces in order to achieve uncontaminated surface smoothness.

In the NPRM, the FAA identified four alternatives to polishing frost that operators may use to comply with this rule. Those alternatives are: (1) Using wing covers to prevent frost accumulation on wings, (2) waiting for frost to melt, (3) storing the aircraft in a heated hangar, or (4) deicing the wing surface. The FAA identified the use of wing covers to prevent frost accumulation on wing surfaces as the lowest-cost alternative for complying with this rule.

Summary of the Final Rule

This final rule removes language from part 91 subpart F, and parts 125 and 135, which permits aircraft to takeoff with frost that has been polished to make it smooth (``polished frost'') on critical surfaces.

Under the final rule, operators will be required to remove any frost adhering to critical surfaces prior to takeoff. Additionally, the rule restructures language in parts 91, 125, and 135 to clarify that aircraft must have functioning deicing or anti-icing equipment to fly under IFR into known or forecast light or moderate icing conditions, or under VFR into known light or moderate icing conditions.





Ice, snow, and frost are frozen contaminants, and they can form and accumulate on exterior aircraft surfaces on the ground. Weather causes this accumulation as do ground operational conditions conducive to icing. In either case, atmospheric conditions vary the type of accumulation, the amount, etc. Generally, icing conditions (during flight or ground operations) occur and ice protection systems or procedures should be activated when the outside air temperature (OAT) is below 50_F (10_C) and visible moisture is present or when there is standing water, ice, or snow on runways or taxiways.

Aircraft in flight experience a variety of atmospheric conditions which alone or together

can produce ice formations on the aircraft and its components. These conditions include:

  • Supercooled clouds.
These are clouds containing water droplets that have remained in the liquid state even though the ambient temperature may be below 32F.
These droplets are very small (five to 100 microns), and they freeze on impact with another object. Water droplets have remained liquid even at temperatures as low as -40F.

The areas requiring special attention during a cold-weather preflight depend on the aircraft's design. FAR Part 135 and 125 certificate holders will identify these areas in the training program they are required to develop. Borrowing from what's required for that training program, general aviation pilots should pay particular attention to:

Wing leading edges, upper and lower surfaces

Vertical and horizontal stabilizing devices, leading edges, upper surfaces, lower surfaces, and side panels

Lift/drag devices (e.g., flaps)

Spoilers and speed brakes

All control surfaces and control balance bays

Propellers, spinners

Engine inlets, particle separators, and screens

Windshields and other windows necessary for visibility

Antennas

Fuselage

Exposed instrumentation devices, e.g., angle-of-attack vanes, pitot-static pressure probes, static ports
  • Fuel tanks and fuel cap vents
Cooling and APU air intakes and exhausts

Landing gear If you know or suspect that the aircraft has been subjected to blowing snow, check any openings where snow can enter and freeze. In addition to and including the above, check:

Pitot tubes and static system sensing ports

Wheel wells/wheel pants

Heater intakes

Engine air intakes and carburetor intakes

Elevator and rudder controls

Fuel vents

segunda-feira, 30 de novembro de 2009

Northwest Airlines Flight 188 - overshot Minneapolis - AUDIO and RECORD transcripts

Northwest Airlines Flight 188


October 21, 2009

The October 21 flight from San Diego to Minneapolis (and beyond) carried 144 passengers for an extra hour and fifteen minutes. Lost to radio communications for 78 minutes, controllers at Minneapolis asked other Northwest flights to check Denver's frequency. When finally reached by controllers, the crew said, "we're good on fuel," adding that the aircraft was carrying more than two hours' worth. The FAA has classified the incident as a "pilot deviation" (similar to flying at the wrong altitude).

Updated: 12:59 pm ET November 25, 2009


Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center (Denver Center), Position 28R, Partial Transcript (PDF, 182 KB)
Denver Center, Position 28RA, Partial Transcript (PDF, 183 KB)
Denver Center, Position 30R, Partial Transcript (PDF, 171 KB)
Denver Center, Position 18R, Partial Transcript (PDF, 133 KB)
Denver Center, Position 08R, Partial Transcript (PDF, 129 KB)
Denver Center, Position 09R, Partial Transcript (PDF, 276 KB)
Audio (MP3, 2.12 MB)
Denver Center, Position 08D, Partial Transcript (PDF, 166 KB)
Denver Center, Position 18D, Partial Transcript (PDF, 167 KB)
Minneapolis Center, Position 29R, Partial Transcript (PDF, 84 KB)
Audio (MP3, 8.61 MB)
Minneapolis Center, Position 19R, Partial Transcript (PDF, 108 KB)
Audio (MP3, 5.36 MB)
Minneapolis Center, Position 13R, Partial Transcript (PDF, 94 KB)
Audio (MP3, 2.24 MB)
Minneapolis Center, Position 13D, Partial Transcript (PDF, 108 KB)
Audio (MP3, 2.38 MB)
Minneapolis Center, Position 16R, Partial Transcript (PDF, 133 KB)
Audio (MP3, 5.94 MB)
Minneapolis Center, Position 10R. Partial Transcript (PDF, 64 KB)
Audio (MP3, 3.51 MB)

quinta-feira, 26 de novembro de 2009

Passengers overnight on board - Continental Airlines and ExpressJet Airlines

As he taxied to the terminal, the aircraft captain asked to deplane the passengers but the ground crew refused because there were no Transportation Security Administration staff in the airport at that hour. The captain tried several times but eventually had to take no for an answer even though TSA rules would have allowed the passengers to get off as long as they were kept in a sterile area of the airport. It's the first time airlines have been punished for a ramp delay, Lahood said.

Office of Public Affairs

DOT 182-09


Tuesday, November 24, 2009


Contact: Bill Mosley


Tel: (202) 366-4570

DOT Issues Precedent-Setting Fines for Rochester, MN Tarmac Delay Incident

The U.S. Department of Transportation today levied a total civil penalty of $100,000 against Continental Airlines and ExpressJet Airlines for their roles in causing the passengers on board Continental Express flight 2816 to remain on the aircraft at Rochester International Airport for an unreasonable period of time on Aug. 8, 2009. Continental also provided a full refund to each passenger and also offered each passenger additional compensation to tangibly acknowledge their time and discomfort. In addition, DOT assessed a civil penalty of $75,000 against Mesaba Airlines, which provided ground handling for the flight, for its role in the incident.

These precedent-setting enforcement actions involve consent orders that reflect a settlement by the carriers of violations alleged by DOT’s Aviation Enforcement Office. They are the first enforcement orders punishing carriers for extended tarmac delays, as well as the first time a carrier acting as a ground handler for another airline has been punished for failing to properly help passengers leave an aircraft during an unreasonably long tarmac delay.

“I hope that this sends a signal to the rest of the airline industry that we expect airlines to respect the rights of air travelers,” said U.S. Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood. “We will also use what we have learned from this investigation to strengthen protections for airline passengers subjected to long tarmac delays.”

The Aviation Enforcement Office’s investigation found that all three carriers violated the law that prohibits unfair and deceptive practices in air transportation for their respective roles in the incident, in which a Continental Express flight from Houston to Minneapolis/St. Paul operated by ExpressJet was diverted to Rochester due to bad weather in Minneapolis. The aircraft reached Rochester about 12:30 a.m. and the passengers were stranded aboard the aircraft until approximately 6:15 a.m. when they were finally deplaned into the terminal.

Prior to diverting to Rochester, ExpressJet contacted Mesaba personnel at Rochester to request assistance at the airport, which Mesaba, the only airline staffing the airport at the time, agreed to provide. Shortly after the flight arrived in Rochester, the ExpressJet captain asked the Mesaba employee handling the flight whether the passengers could deplane into the airport terminal. In response to this initial inquiry, and other subsequent inquiries, the captain was told that passengers could not enter the terminal because there were no Transportation Security Administration (TSA) screeners on duty at that hour, despite the fact that TSA rules would have allowed the passengers to enter the airport as long as they remained in a sterile area.

Continental and ExpressJet, in separate orders, were found to have violated the prohibition against unfair and deceptive practices in air transportation because ExpressJet failed to carry out a provision of Continental’s customer service commitment requiring that, if a ground delay is approaching three hours, its operations center will determine if departure is expected within a reasonable time, and if not the carrier will take action as soon as possible to deplane passengers. ExpressJet also failed to take timely actions required by its procedures, including notifying senior ExpressJet officials and providing appropriate Continental officials with notice of the delay. Continental was found to have engaged in an unfair and deceptive practice since, as the carrier marketing the flight 2816, Continental ultimately is responsible to its passengers on that flight.

The consent order covering Mesaba finds that the carrier engaged in an unfair and deceptive practice when it provided inaccurate information to ExpressJet about deplaning passengers from flight 2816.

In November 2008, the Department proposed a rule to enhance airline passenger protections, including a provision that would require airlines to adopt contingency plans for lengthy tarmac delays and incorporate them in their contracts of carriage. A final rule is expected by the end of this calendar year.

quarta-feira, 11 de novembro de 2009

TAM 3054 - Final Investigation Report - Pilot Interactive Computer Training


Centro de Treinamento da TAM em São Paulo




"TREINAMENTO FALHO"


O relatório aponta falhas no treinamento e instrução fornecidos pela TAM. O CENIPA diz que, a formação teórica dos pilotos usava apenas cursos interativos em computador, "o que permitia a formação massiva, mas não garantia a qualidade da instrução recebida". Além disso, a formação de Stefanini, o copiloto, contemplou apenas um tipo de certificação, o que se mostrou insuficiente para enfrentar aquela situação. Por fim, havia a percepção, entre os tripulantes, de que o treinamento vinha sendo abreviado, por causa da grande demanda advinda do crescimento da empresa. "

"Instrução: A formação teórica dos pilotos usava exclusivamente simulações em computador, o que não garantia a boa formação individual de cada um. Além disso, a formação do copiloto, Henrique Stefanini di Sacco, contemplou apenas um determinado tipo de certificação, que se mostrou insuficiente para enfrentar a situação. Havia a percepção entre os tripulantes, aliás, que o treinamento vinha sendo abreviado."

"Coordenação de cabine: O monitoramento do voo não se mostrou adequado, uma vez que a tripulação não percebia o que acontecia, o que impediu correções.

Pouca experiência do piloto: Apesar de sua larga experiência em grandes jatos comerciais, Di Sacco tinha apenas 200 horas de voo em jatos A320

Supervisão gerencial: A companhia aérea permitiu que a tripulação fosse composta por dois comandantes, mas Di Sacco havia realizado só um treinamento específico. A falta de coordenação entre os setores da empresa - especialmente Operações e Treinamento - levou a falhas na formação dos pilotos

Falta de percepção: A configuração e o funcionamento dos manetes não ajudaram os pilotos na identificação de dificuldades. E essa situação foi agravada pela falta de um alarme para indicar o erro na posição do instrumento

Perda de consciência situacional: Surgiu como consequência da falta de percepção dos pilotos. A automação da aeronave também não ofereceu aos tripulantes sinais de perigo"

Regulação: Embora a ANAC proibisse a operação com reverso (freio aerodinâmico) inoperante, a exigência só foi normatizada em 2008. Isso impediria o pouso com pista molhada

Projeto: Ficou constatado que é possível possível pousar com os manetes do A320 em posições distintas, sem que nenhum dispositivo alerte os pilotos.

FALHA EM AVISO SONORO

As simulações revelaram um dado preocupante: nem sempre o aviso sonoro "retard", que tem a função de advertir os pilotos sobre os procedimentos a serem adotados no momento do pouso, operou conforme o previsto. "Ficou constatado que, na aeronave A320, é possível, durante o pouso, posicionar um dos manetes de potência na posição reverso (frenagem) e outro na posição de subida (aceleração), sem que nenhum dispositivo alerte de modo eficiente os pilotos", diz a página 102. "Tal situação pode colocar a aeronave em condição crítica e, dependendo do tempo necessário para que a tripulação identifique essa configuração e dos parâmetros da pista de pouso, uma situação catastrófica poderá ocorrer", avisa o CENIPA.

Centro de Treinamento da TAM em São Paulo

US Airways Flight 1549 - 3D reconstruction - Hudson River Ditching




US Airways Flight 1549 reconstruction by EXO Esphere 3D

The NTSB released the public docket for Flight 1549 on June 9, 2009. The docket contains a wealth of information that can be utilized in a full 3D reconstruction of the accident. Our work goes deep into the underlying framework of information and encompasses the entire spectrum of accident information. Integrating all spatial and temporal data allows us to approach this accident from a never-before-seen perspective. All work you see on this page would withstand the rigors of qualification for presentation either as demonstrative evidence or, if sufficient witness testimony is available, real evidence. We have the capability to blend all of the information you see into any perceivable final product, depending on your specific visualization needs. The video below is best viewed full screen with HD enabled.
Most people don't realize this, but the birds were visible on radar, before the event occured. After integrating the raw radar data into our 3D environment and creating motion targets representing those radar returns associated with the flock of birds, our timeline clearly depicts the intersection of Flight 1549 with birds at a time of around 1527:10 (HHMM:SS). This coincides well with the CVR transcript which indicates loud "thumps" at 1527:11.4 (HHMM:SS.0). The NTSB Wildlife Factors Report has identified the feathers in the aircraft as Branta Canadensis (Canada Goose) by means of visual, microscopic and DNA analysis. Identification of the feathers was conducted by the Smithsonian Institute Feather Identification Laboratory. Though the errors may be intolerable, it is possible to pursue an altitude calculation for the birds by triangulation, this due to the fact that there are two separate radar facilities that reported data. We know the altitude of the birds at the time of impact, but it may also be helpful to determine their flight profile to understand where they were going or where they departed.. We will attempt this analysis as our work continues on the accident.

The illustration below presents a detailed view in the area of the bird strike and clearly shows motion, disorganization of the flock following the bird strike, and the subsequent re-organization of the flock(s) following the passage of a second aircraft, Eagle Flight 4718. Aircraft altitude is in 100's of feet, time lapse is set at 10x normal speed for this animaiton to aid in visualization. Eagle Flight 4718 actually came quite close to birds but luckily was not on an intersecting flightpath.



sexta-feira, 23 de outubro de 2009

Northwest Flight 188 - overshot destination - many alerts on flight deck

Wandering Flight Spurs Nap Probe


Weather condition


Traffic


Overshot


Track over destination

UPDATED TO NOV 17, 2009
FAA Administrator Randy Babbitt said in a news conference Friday that the FAA had not contacted NORAD soon enough regarding wayward Northwest Flight 188 - he also said things would change. Flight 188 last month went silent and overshot MSP by 150 miles, but the FAA did not notify other agencies about the loss of radio contact until one hour and nine minutes after last contact. In a news release, the FAA announced it "has taken steps to ensure more accurate preliminary information about air traffic events can be provided to top officials more quickly." As part of that push, the FAA will be updating its training and procedures for how controllers handle aircraft that have gone NORDO. The FAA says new incident notification procedures will be adopted by the end of the month and it will review changes to training and procedures by the end of January, 2010. The agency noted specific goals.


Changes target three areas. First it aims to ensure that air traffic controllers are armed with the knowledge, ability and tools to identify those aircraft that are in communication with ATC and when those communications have been interrupted. Second, it aims to ensure that coordination with other agencies regarding loss of communications is handled effectively and accurately. Third, the FAA aims to improve the accuracy of its preliminary investigations and the timely dissemination of information, internally.


NTSB preliminary findings have stated that the source of the distraction was not a "heated discussion of airline policy" as originally claimed, but the use of laptops in the cockpit, which can obscure the view of dashboard instruments and further distract pilots.

Descobertas preliminares da NTSB atestam que a fonte da distração não foi uma "discussão das diretrizes da empresa" como alegaram originalmente, mas o uso de LAPTOPS na cockpit, que pode encobrir a visão do painel de instrumentos e adicionalmente distrair pilotos.

FAA revokes wayward Northwest pilots' licenses

“You were disengaged and impervious to the serious threat to your own safety, as well as the safety of the people for whom you are responsible.”     the FAA said in a letter to the pilots.

FAA cancela licenças de pilotos da imprevisivel Northwest

"vocês estiveram descompromissados e indiferentes à ameaça séria a suas próprias segurança, assim como à segurança das pessoas para quais vocês são responsáveis"
O FAA disse numa carta para os pilotos

They were in violation of company policy, the NTSB said on Monday. The first officer was showing the captain how to use a new crew flight scheduling procedure, and both pilots said they lost track of time. During their discussion, they did not monitor the airplane or notice calls from ATC. Neither pilot was wearing a headset, but both said they heard conversation on the radio. Also, neither pilot noticed messages that were sent by company dispatchers. Neither pilot was aware of the airplane's position until a flight attendant called about five minutes before they were scheduled to land and asked for an ETA. The captain said at that point, he looked at his primary flight display and realized they had passed their destination, Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport (MSP). They then made contact with ATC and were given vectors back to MSP.

Eles estiveram em violação das diretrizes da companhia, disse a NTSB na Segunda-feira. O co-piloto estava mostrando ao comandante como usar uma novo procedimento de horários de voo da tripulação,  e ambos pilotos disseram que eles ouviram conversas no rádio. Também, nenhum piloto notou as mensagens que foram enviadas pelos despachantes da companhia. Nenhum piloto esteve atento à posição do avião até que uma comissária de voo os chamou cinco minutos antes deles estarem no horário do pouso e indagaram a Hora Estimada de Chegada. O comandante disse que naquele ponto, ele olhou no seu PFD e percebeu que eles tinham passado o destino deles, o aeroporto internacional São Paulo em Minneapolis (KMSP). Eles então fizeram contato com o ATC e foram dados vetores para voltarem para Minneapolis.

Northwest was recently acquired by Delta, which prompted the change in rules that the pilots were discussing. In a statement issued on Monday, Delta said the two pilots in command of Northwest Flight 188 are suspended until the conclusion of the investigations, but added that using laptops in the cockpit is strictly against the airline's flight deck policies, "and violations of that policy will result in termination." The NTSB said the captain, age 53, has been with Northwest since 1985 and has a total flight time of about 20,000 hours. The F/O, age 54, was hired in 1997, and has a total flight time of about 11,000 hours. Both pilots said they had never had an accident, incident or violation; neither reported any ongoing medical conditions, and both said they were not fatigued. They were both commuters, but they had a 19-hour layover in San Diego just prior to the incident flight. NTSB will analyze data from the flight data recorder to see if any information regarding crew activity during the portion of flight where radio contact was lost can be obtained.


A Northwest foi recentemnte comprada pela DELTA, a qual efetuou a imediata mudança nas regras que os pilotos estavam discutindo. Numa declaração emitida na Segunda-feira, a DELTA disse que os dois pilotos em comando do voo 188 da Northwest estavam suspensos até a conclusão das investigações, mas acrescentou que usar NOTEBOOK na cockpit é estritamente contra as diretrizes da cabine dos pilotos na empresa, "e violações desta diretriz resultariam em demissão".
A NTSB disse que o comandante, 53 anos, estava na Northwest desde 1985 e tem um total de cerca de  20.000 horas de voo. O Primeiro-Oficial, 54 anos, foi contratado em 1997 e tem um total de cerca de 11.000 horas de voo. Ambos pilotos disseram que eles nunca tiveram um acidente, incidente ou violação; nem relataram quaisquer condições médicas em andamento, e ambos disseram que eles não estavam fatigados. Eles ambos estavam em jornada de voo, mas eles tiveram um repouso de 19 horas em San Diego logo antes do voo do incidente. A NTSB analisará os dados do Gravador de Dados de Voo para ver se qualquer informação a respeito da atividade da tripulação   durante a porção do voo onde o contato pelo rádio foi perdido possa ser obtida.

The National Transportation Safety Board is investigating, among other things, whether the two pilots fell asleep at the controls. The pair told law-enforcement officials who interviewed them upon landing in Minneapolis - and apparently told fellow pilots later - that they had been engaged in a "heated discussion over airline policy and they lost situational awareness," according to the NTSB.

O NTSB está investigando, entre outras coisas, se os dois pilotos cochilaram nos controles. Os pilotos contaram aos investigadores que os intrevistaram após o pouso em Minneapolis e aparentemente contaram a pilotos colegas mais tarde, que eles tinham estado empenhados numa "calorosa discussão acerca das diretrizes da empresa de linha aérea e eles perderam a consciência situacional", de acordo como NTSB.

Teria qualquer dos pilotos "distraídos" (cochilando!) inserido no FMS a CHEGADA EAU CLAIRE 8 em vez da SKETER 3?

O resultado seria o FMS ter calculado o T/D [Top Of  Descend = ponto ideal de descida] para 19 milhas náuticas DEPOIS de Minneapolis.



  

EAU CLAIRE 8 ARRIVAL

SKETER 3 ARRIVAL



Route to be flown

terça-feira, 20 de outubro de 2009

Instruments Panel - No More Knobs - Touchscreen Era




Garmin 3000

Garmin's New G3000: Touchscreen and Widescreen EFIS


Garmin says the same will soon be true for cockpit EFIS. Garmin announced the new G3000.  The new EFIS is aimed a light turboprops and will be ready for market in a couple of years.

Meanwhile, a working mockup of the new system revealed 14.1 inch landscape aspect display screens with WXGA resolution which gives Garmin's synthetic visual a lifelike snap. On the MFD side, the screen can be split into two vertical pages to allow reading an approach plate on one side, a map or weather display on the other.

The touchscreen function happens on a pair of what Garmin calls GTC570 vehicle management systems, which live below the screens on a pedestal mount. These are actually smaller display screens that have touch-controlled operating menus with logic similar to computers, including "back" and "home" functions to simply operation. There are some virtual knobs and buttons, including one for radio volume, and also a joystick for map navigation.  The G3000 will have reversionary display capability and will be able to re-initialize on the fly. It will also support Jeppesen chart products, but Garmin's SafeTaxi, ChartView and synthetic vision features.

domingo, 18 de outubro de 2009

Aircraft Dents and Cracks - Maintenance with sensors




Energy-autonomous Sensors Find Dents And Cracks In Aircraft


Aircraft maintenance will be easier in future, with sensors monitoring the aircraft skin. If they discover any dents or cracks they will send a radio message to a monitoring unit. The energy needed for this will be obtained from temperature differences.

Sensores autônomos de energia  descobrem mossas e rachaduras em aeronaves

Manutenção de aeronaves será mais fácil no futuro, com sensores monitorando a fuselagem da aeronave. Se eles descobrem quaisquer mossas ou rachaduras, eles enviarão uma mensagem por rádio para a unidade monitora. A energia necessária para isto será obtida da diferença de temperaturas.

If a bird collides with a plane the consequences can be fatal, not only for the creature itself. The impact can deform the structure of the aircraft fuselage, causing stresses in the material which can later turn into cracks. In future, sensors in the aircraft skin will detect such damage at an early stage and simplify maintenance and repair work. The sensors are light - they don’t need any cables or batteries. They draw their energy from the temperature difference between the outside air (about minus 20 to minus 50 degrees Celsius) and the passenger cabin (about 20 degrees Celsius). Because there are no batteries to change, the sensors can be located at inaccessible places on the aircraft.

Se um pássaro colide com um avião as consequencias podem ser fatais, não somente para a criatura em si. O impacto pode deformar a estrutura da fuselagem da eronave, causando stress no material o qual pode mais tarde virar rachaduras. No futuro, sensores na fuselagem da aeronave detectarão tais avarias num estágio prévio e simplificará a manutenção e trabalho de reparo. Os sensores são luzes - elas não precisam de qualquer cabo [fios] ou baterias. Elas retirarão sua energia da diferença de temperatura entre o ar externo (cerca de -20ºC a - 50ºC) e a cabine de passageiros (cerca de +20ºC). Por causa de não haver baterias a carregar, os sensores podem ser localizados em lugares inacessíveis na aeronave.
 
The applications for energy-autonomous sensors are numerous. In automobiles they could help to reduce weight by removing the need for heavy cable assemblies. They would also be useful in old buildings, where they could be easily affixed to walls e.g. to monitor dampness. Their use in the medical sector is feasible too. A sensor system integrated in a running shirt could monitor an athlete’s pulse during training, and hearing aids could obtain their energy from body heat.
 
As aplicações para sensores autônomos de energia são numerosas. Em automóveis eles poderiam ajudar reduzir peso pela remoção da necessidade de cabos pesados na montagem. Eles também seriam úteis em prédios antigos, onde eles poderiam ser facilmente afixados nas paredes para monitorar umidade.


O uso deles no setor médico é viável também. Um sistema de sensor integrado numa camiseta poderia monitorar a pulsação do atleta durante os exercícios físicos e aparelhos de audição poderiam obter suas energias do calor do corpo.
 

quarta-feira, 14 de outubro de 2009

Cessna cuts regional pilot center managers - remain Wichita-based only



October 13, 2009 .

The economic downturn has hit the Cessna Pilot Centers.

On Friday, Oct. 9, all four Cessna Pilot Center regional managers were informed that their positions were being eliminated for financial reasons. Cessna Pilot Centers are flight training affiliates that use Cessna’s proprietary training curriculum and Cessna aircraft. The centers offer a variety of services ranging from aircraft sales to flight training.

On Tues., Oct. 13, an e-mail was sent to the centers advising them of the change. “Support for the Cessna Pilot Center program, though reduced, remains intact and will be Wichita-based until we get to the other side of this storm,” the e-mail states.

Cessna has 280 Cessna Pilot Centers throughout the world, with most in the United States.

segunda-feira, 12 de outubro de 2009

Pilots napping in the cockpit - getting beyond their control


"My eyelids on slow motion closure sounded on my head like those cartoon cats napping"
"The instruments panel fade in and out".

Pilots, Airlines Push For Nap Time

FAA rules on how many hours an airline pilot may fly or be on duty before he must rest have been virtually unchanged for nearly a half-century. If airlines had to allow their crews more rest, they would have to hire more crews.


The practice of catching a nap while serving on the flight deck is not currently approved by the FAA, but citing supporting evidence, pilot unions and airlines say it may be time for the FAA to embrace the idea. British Airways, Qantas and others have for some years allowed one pilot to sleep during the cruise portion of some flights and some studies indicate it makes crew more alert during critical phases of flight. "It may seem counterintuitive to folks in the back of the plane, but it's the right thing to do," Bill Voss, president of the Flight Safety Foundation, told The Wall Street Journal. Besides, pilots do nap en route, according to a recent survey of commuter pilots referenced by the Journal, which also stated simply that "pilots say naps not only make sense, but that they also already take them." And fatigue has long been among the top concerns of aviation safety authorities, having been cited as a contributing factor in more than 250 aviation fatalities since 1990.

The strategies supported by the airlines and unions are referred to as controlled napping, and are seen as fatigue-mitigation strategies. Public perception is cited as the biggest obstacle in implementing those strategies. The balance of safety, profitability and work rules makes the issue complex. The FAA is expected to review crew rest rules, and napping is expected to be part of the conversation if not the final regulations.

Crowded skies and exhausted pilots are a bad mix, the airline industry and pilot unions agree, but they're struggling over what to do about it.

"We have many experiences of the flight crew, the cabin crew, who in cases of emergency were just so numb they couldn't respond instantly to a tragedy at hand."

Corporate Airlines Flight 5966 was preparing to land on Oct. 19, 2004, when the twin-engine turboprop slammed into trees. The pilots and 11 passengers were killed. Two injured passengers survived by jumping from the plane moments before it was engulfed in flames.


The NTSB said the pilots failed to notice that their plane had descended too quickly because they didn't follow procedures and engaged in unprofessional cockpit banter. But the board also said the captain and first officer probably were exhausted - they were completing their sixth flight of the day, had been on duty more than 14 hours and had flown three trips the day before.

Studies show exhaustion can impair a pilot's judgment in much the same way alcohol does. It's not uncommon for overtired pilots to focus on a conversation or a single chore and miss other things going on around them, including critical flight information. In a few cases, they've just fallen asleep.

Last year, two pilots conked out for at least 18 minutes during a midmorning flight from Honolulu to Hilo, Hawaii, as their plane continued to cruise past its destination and out to sea. Air traffic controllers were finally able to raise the pilots, who turned around the plane with its 40 passengers and landed it safely.

It's not clear where the captain of Flight 3407 slept the night before the crash, but it appears he may have tried to nap in a busy airport crew room where his company - regional carrier Colgan Air Inc. of Manassas, Va., which operated the flight for Continental - kept bright lights on to discourage extended sleeping. The first officer commuted overnight from her home near Seattle to Newark, N.J., to make the flight to Buffalo.


A brief review of US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) flight time and rest rules for scheduled domestic commercial carriers (US Code Title 14, part 121.471) are as follows:


Crewmember total flying time maximum of:

1000 hours in any calendar year

100 hours in any calendar month

30 hours in any 7 consecutive days

8 hours between required rest periods

Rest for scheduled flight during the 24 hours preceding the completion of any flight segment:

9 consecutive of hours rest for less than 8 hours scheduled flight time

10 hours rest for 8 hours or more, but less than 9 hours scheduled flight time

11 hours rest for 9 hours or more scheduled flight time

Read the entire section for exceptions (18).

The flight crew duty day starts with check-in, and is considered concluded at block-in plus 15 minutes for that day’s final flight. Rest periods are times when the crewmember is not scheduled for flying duty. These are not periods of restful sleep. Adequate restful sleep, however, must be achievable during these rest periods. In addition to FAA regulations, company rules and practices also influence crew scheduling and rest issues. Company contracts with pilots, scheduling practices for bids and reserve, and productivity demands all play a part in the balance between work requirements and crew rest.

When flight crewmembers find themselves flying when fatigued several warning signals should alert them of a dangerous situation. These include:


Eyes going in and out of focus

Head bobs involuntarily

Persistent yawning

Wandering or poorly organized thoughts

Spotty near term memory

Missed or erroneous performance of routine procedures

Degradation of control accuracy (19)
 
REFERENCES:
18. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Vol. 2 (revised 2002), 14CFR121.471.


19. Caldwell JA, (2002) Asleep at the Throttle. US Air Force Research Laboratory Pamphlet.